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Monitoring the ionosphere is an essential part of the “Space Weather”, a research field that deals with the study of phenomena involving the Sun, the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the ionosphere and the thermosphere. The polar regions are a natural laboratory for the research in this field and the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) currently manages, among others, an ionospheric observatory at Concordia Station. The observatory hosts 4 GNSS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM) receivers which collect real-time data 24/7; the first one (DMC0S) was installed in 2009, followed by DMC1S in 2010, DMC2S in 2013 and DMC0P in 2017. To monitor such transient effects as ionospheric scintillations, the receivers sample the signals of different GNSS constellations in both amplitude and phase, with a frequency of at least 50Hz. The raw data are collected and processed at Concordia by dedicated software and transmitted in Italy, where the INGV-eSWua system provides near real-time ionospheric scintillation data and products (amplitude scintillation index, phase scintillation index, Total Electron Content, scintillation maps, etc.) harmonized among different instruments and accessible in a standardized and interoperable distribution format.
The geomagnetic observatory DMC has been installed during the 2003-2005 Campaigns. The regular operation of the observatory consists of unmanned, continuous measurement of the variations of the geomagnetic field. Also, absolute magnetic field measurements are manually taken during the whole year. The recorded data are: - 1 sec measurements of the variations of the three geomagnetic field components - 1 min averages of the variations of the three geomagnetic field components - 5 sec measurements of the geomagnetic field scalar intensity - 1 min averages of the geomagnetic field scalar intensity - absolute measurements. All the automatic recordings are delivered in almost real-time to the INTERMAGNET data bank. All the automatic recordings are delivered in real-time to the INGV data portal.