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IT/INGV

13 record(s)
 
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    Monitoring the ionosphere is an essential part of the “Space Weather”, a research field that deals with the study of phenomena involving the Sun, the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the ionosphere and the thermosphere. The polar regions are a natural laboratory for the research in this field and the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) currently manages, among others, an ionospheric observatory at the Italian Mario Zucchelli station. The observatory hosts a GNSS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM) receiver, which collects ionospheric data 24/7 since 2006. To monitor such transient effects as ionospheric scintillations, the receivers sample the signals of different GNSS constellations in both amplitude and phase, with a frequency of at least 50Hz. The raw data are collected and processed at the OASI laboratory by dedicated software and transmitted in Italy, where the INGV-eSWua system provides near real-time ionospheric scintillation data and products (amplitude scintillation index, phase scintillation index, Total Electron Content, scintillation maps, etc.) harmonized among different instruments and accessible in a standardized and interoperable distribution format.

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    A permanent seismological observatory, international code TNV, is operating at MZS Italian Antarctic station: Seismological VBB data are recorded and collected according to the international SEED standard. Two independent parallel chains are running: 1) Streckeisen STS-1 Sensors + Quanterra Q330HR datalogger, marked with location code 01; 2) Streckeisen STS-2 Seismometer + Quanterra Q330HR datalogger, marked with location code 02. All data are available for the international seismological community. Research activities: global seismicity of the Earth studies; studies of local and regional seismicity; lithospheric structure studies.

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    The SENECA project aims to provide first evaluations of gas concentrations and emissions from permafrost and/or thawing shallow strata and to derive a first estimate of the CO2 and CH4 emission at Southern Polar Hemisphere. The obtained results can also be used to assess uncovered new problems and opportunities, such as how the Antarctica environment can increase to permanent and temporal scale the global temperatures. The project is organized in four major tasks: (1) soil gas content and origin; (2) CO 2 and CH 4 degassing output; (3) geophysics exploration and petrographic characterization of the soils; (4) seasonal trend of CO2 soil concentration. Geoelectrical data: The field campaign took place in the Taylor Valley, which is part of the McMurdo Dry Valleys (Antarctica). We performed 2D data acquisition on five profiles, ~N-S and ~W-E trending from Dec 26, 2019 to Jan 20, 2020. We used the Fullwaver system (Gance et al., 2018, Lajaunie et al.,2018). The Fullwaver system does not require long and heavy multi-core cables and fixed array configurations. Recording and injection devices come into separate hardware. Specifically, this field apparatus consists in: a) an induced polarization transmitter (VIP) b) one current measurement unit called I-Fullwaver c) a set of 2-channels independent receiving nodes called V-Fullwavers d) a motor-generator Current is injected through an induced polarization transmitter, (VIP 5000, IRIS Instruments). This transmitter enables to inject current up to 10 Amps, 5000W and 3000V, with a frequency of 0.5Hz. An external 7kVA generator provides current for the VIP. The receiving nodes record continuously the electrical field and the injection electrodes can be moved inside and outside the receiving nodes with any type of electrode array configuration. Injected current is recorded in real-time on the I-Fullwaver. Profile 1 (4.5 km length), 2 (3.8 km length) and 3 (3.2 km length) were designed in order to reach an ideal depth of investigation of ~800 m, while profiles 4 (1.8 km length) and 5 (1.6 km length) were designed in order to reach the depth of the borehole data from DVDP 11 (~300m), giving an independent geological control in phase of modeling and interpretation. We used from 8 to 12 receiving nodes combined with one injection node. Each V-Fullwaver was connected to 3 receiving electrodes deployed in a line (P1, P2, P3). Their spacing was set to 50 meters. Between each receiving node a 100 m spacing was set. One electrode A (e.g. Tx 1 ) was always fixed at one end of the profile and we moved the B (e.g. Tx 4 ) electrode across the acquisition line, until completing the largest injection, e.g. Tx1 -Tx9 . This procedure was repeated forward and backward, adopting Tx 1 or the last transmission as fixed electrode respectively. The distance between the injections was set to 200m for the transmissions located inside or immediately close to the V-Fullwaver line, while for the injections external to the V-Fullwaver line, the distance was set to 250m (e.g. for profiles 1, 2, 3). Receiving and injecting nodes are GPS-synchronized with an independent GPS unit mounted on each Fullwaver. Post-processing of the raw data can be performed to improve the signal to noise ratio producing high-resolution data. GPS positions for all the electrodes were acquired with a GPSMAP 64s, with an accuracy of ~3 m. For the data processing, we will utilize data of the surface topography extracted from Lidar of the Taylor Valley (Fountain et al., 2017). During the acquisition, contact resistances ranged from ~0.6 KOhm to 2.3 KOhm. We injected from 0.8 A to 2.5 A for 120 to 180s, in order to obtain as many stacks as possible to decrease the signal to noise ratio.

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    During the fourth Italian expedition to northern Victoria Land in 1988–1989, a new volcanic centre named Mount Rittmann was discovered on the eastern shoulder of Aviator Glacier, north of Mount Brabec, in the Mountaineer Range. Mount Rittmann is still active and shows fumarolic activity mainly concentrated along a steep slope on the east flank of the volcano, uncovered by perennial ice. In the framework of the ICE-VOLC project (www.icevolc-project.com), we are assessing the state of this volcano, as well as of Mt. Melbourne, and investigating their dynamics by acquisition, analysis and integration of multiparametric geophysical, geochemical and thermal data. Complementary objectives of ICE-VOLC project include investigation of the relationship between seismo-acoustic activity recorded in Antarctica and cryosphere-ocean-atmosphere dynamics, evaluation of the impact of volcanic gas in the atmosphere, and finally dissemination of the project outcomes. The project involves three institutions: Università degli Studi di Catania, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia e Università degli Studi di Perugia. To achieve the project objectives, we developed and installed in 2017 a permanent seismo-acoustic station on the top of Mount Rittmann (Contrafatto et al., 2018, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5023481). This station continuously acquires three-component broadband seismic data, as well as infrasonic signals.

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    Monitoring the ionosphere is an essential part of the “Space Weather”, a research field that deals with the study of phenomena involving the Sun, the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the ionosphere and the thermosphere. The polar regions are a natural laboratory for the research in this field and the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) currently manages, among others, an ionospheric observatory at Concordia Station. The observatory hosts 4 GNSS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM) receivers which collect real-time data 24/7; the first one (DMC0S) was installed in 2009, followed by DMC1S in 2010, DMC2S in 2013 and DMC0P in 2017. To monitor such transient effects as ionospheric scintillations, the receivers sample the signals of different GNSS constellations in both amplitude and phase, with a frequency of at least 50Hz. The raw data are collected and processed at Concordia by dedicated software and transmitted in Italy, where the INGV-eSWua system provides near real-time ionospheric scintillation data and products (amplitude scintillation index, phase scintillation index, Total Electron Content, scintillation maps, etc.) harmonized among different instruments and accessible in a standardized and interoperable distribution format.

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    The geomagnetic observatory MZS has been installed during the 1986-87 Campaign. The regular operation of the observatory consists of unmanned, continuous measurement of the variations of the geomagnetic field. Also, absolute magnetic field measurements are manually taken during each summer campaign. The recorded data are: - 1 sec measurements of the variations of the three geomagnetic field components - 1 min averages of the variations of the three geomagnetic field components - 5 sec measurements of the geomagnetic field scalar intensity - 1 min averages of the geomagnetic field scalar intensity - absolute measurements only during the summer campaign. All the automatic recordings are delivered in real-time to the INGV data portal. For each campaign, data and activities are reported in the yearbook.

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    Seismological observations can be useful in the monitoring of ice stream dynamics and evolution. A temporary seismic array was deployed around the David Glacier, Victoria Land, during the austral summers 2015-16. Target of the experiment is the collection of seismometric data in order (i) to contribute to filling the gap in global seismic instrumentation, (ii) to monitor the Antarctic seismicity despite its weakness, (iii) to study the lithospheric and deep structure of the continent, (iv) to study interconnections between geodynamics and icecap and glacial evolution.

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    Seismological observations can be useful in the monitoring of ice stream dynamics and evolution. A temporary seismic array was deployed around the David Glacier, Victoria Land, during the austral summers 2005-06. Target of the experiment is the collection of seismometric data in order (i) to contribute to filling the gap in global seismic instrumentation, (ii) to monitor the Antarctic seismicity despite its weakness, (iii) to study the lithospheric and deep structure of the continent, (iv) to study interconnections between geodynamics and icecap and glacial evolution.

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    The geomagnetic observatory DMC has been installed during the 2003-2005 Campaigns. The regular operation of the observatory consists of unmanned, continuous measurement of the variations of the geomagnetic field. Also, absolute magnetic field measurements are manually taken during the whole year. The recorded data are: - 1 sec measurements of the variations of the three geomagnetic field components - 1 min averages of the variations of the three geomagnetic field components - 5 sec measurements of the geomagnetic field scalar intensity - 1 min averages of the geomagnetic field scalar intensity - absolute measurements. All the automatic recordings are delivered in almost real-time to the INTERMAGNET data bank. All the automatic recordings are delivered in real-time to the INGV data portal.

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    Victoria Land (Antarctica) shows a great abundance of seismic signals related to many different types of natural sources such as volcanoes, cryosphere dynamics and ocean-solid Earth interactions. Concerning the former, Melbourne and Rittmann are active volcanoes located in Victoria Land, relatively close to the Italian research station Mario Zucchelli. The main aim of the ICE-VOLC project (www.icevolc-project.com) is the assessment of the state of Melbourne and Rittmann, and the investigation of their dynamics by acquisition, analysis and integration of multiparametric geophysical, geochemical and thermal data. Complementary objectives of ICE-VOLC include investigation of the relationship between seismo-acoustic activity recorded in Antarctica and cryosphere-ocean-atmosphere dynamics, evaluation of the impact of volcanic gas in atmosphere, and finally dissemination of the project outcomes. The project involves three institutions: Università degli Studi di Catania, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia e Università degli Studi di Perugia. To achieve the project objectives, we collected seismic data by temporary broadband 3C stations in different sites of Victoria Land (located on Mt. Melbourne, Mt. Rittmann and Tethys Bay) during various Italian expeditions in Antarctica.