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Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)

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    Monitoring the ionosphere is an essential part of the “Space Weather”, a research field that deals with the study of phenomena involving the Sun, the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the ionosphere and the thermosphere. The polar regions are a natural laboratory for the research in this field and the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) currently manages, among others, an ionospheric observatory at Concordia Station. The observatory hosts 4 GNSS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM) receivers which collect real-time data 24/7; the first one (DMC0S) was installed in 2009, followed by DMC1S in 2010, DMC2S in 2013 and DMC0P in 2017. To monitor such transient effects as ionospheric scintillations, the receivers sample the signals of different GNSS constellations in both amplitude and phase, with a frequency of at least 50Hz. The raw data are collected and processed at Concordia by dedicated software and transmitted in Italy, where the INGV-eSWua system provides near real-time ionospheric scintillation data and products (amplitude scintillation index, phase scintillation index, Total Electron Content, scintillation maps, etc.) harmonized among different instruments and accessible in a standardized and interoperable distribution format.

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    A permanent seismological observatory, international code TNV, is operating at MZS Italian Antarctic station: Seismological VBB data are recorded and collected according to the international SEED standard. Two independent parallel chains are running: 1) Streckeisen STS-1 Sensors + Quanterra Q330HR datalogger, marked with location code 01; 2) Streckeisen STS-2 Seismometer + Quanterra Q330HR datalogger, marked with location code 02. All data are available for the international seismological community. Research activities: global seismicity of the Earth studies; studies of local and regional seismicity; lithospheric structure studies.

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    The geomagnetic observatory MZS has been installed during the 1986-87 Campaign. The regular operation of the observatory consists of unmanned, continuous measurement of the variations of the geomagnetic field. Also, absolute magnetic field measurements are manually taken during each summer campaign. The recorded data are: - 1 sec measurements of the variations of the three geomagnetic field components - 1 min averages of the variations of the three geomagnetic field components - 5 sec measurements of the geomagnetic field scalar intensity - 1 min averages of the geomagnetic field scalar intensity - absolute measurements only during the summer campaign. All the automatic recordings are delivered in real-time to the INGV data portal. For each campaign, data and activities are reported in the yearbook.

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    Monitoring the ionosphere is an essential part of the “Space Weather”, a research field that deals with the study of phenomena involving the Sun, the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the ionosphere and the thermosphere. The polar regions are a natural laboratory for the research in this field and the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) currently manages, among others, an ionospheric observatory at the Italian Mario Zucchelli station. The observatory hosts a GNSS ionospheric scintillation and TEC monitor (GISTM) receiver, which collects ionospheric data 24/7 since 2006. To monitor such transient effects as ionospheric scintillations, the receivers sample the signals of different GNSS constellations in both amplitude and phase, with a frequency of at least 50Hz. The raw data are collected and processed at the OASI laboratory by dedicated software and transmitted in Italy, where the INGV-eSWua system provides near real-time ionospheric scintillation data and products (amplitude scintillation index, phase scintillation index, Total Electron Content, scintillation maps, etc.) harmonized among different instruments and accessible in a standardized and interoperable distribution format.

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    The geomagnetic observatory DMC has been installed during the 2003-2005 Campaigns. The regular operation of the observatory consists of unmanned, continuous measurement of the variations of the geomagnetic field. Also, absolute magnetic field measurements are manually taken during the whole year. The recorded data are: - 1 sec measurements of the variations of the three geomagnetic field components - 1 min averages of the variations of the three geomagnetic field components - 5 sec measurements of the geomagnetic field scalar intensity - 1 min averages of the geomagnetic field scalar intensity - absolute measurements. All the automatic recordings are delivered in almost real-time to the INTERMAGNET data bank. All the automatic recordings are delivered in real-time to the INGV data portal.

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    During the fourth Italian expedition to northern Victoria Land in 1988–1989, a new volcanic centre named Mount Rittmann was discovered on the eastern shoulder of Aviator Glacier, north of Mount Brabec, in the Mountaineer Range. Mount Rittmann is still active and shows fumarolic activity mainly concentrated along a steep slope on the east flank of the volcano, uncovered by perennial ice. In the framework of the ICE-VOLC project (www.icevolc-project.com), we are assessing the state of this volcano, as well as of Mt. Melbourne, and investigating their dynamics by acquisition, analysis and integration of multiparametric geophysical, geochemical and thermal data. Complementary objectives of ICE-VOLC project include investigation of the relationship between seismo-acoustic activity recorded in Antarctica and cryosphere-ocean-atmosphere dynamics, evaluation of the impact of volcanic gas in the atmosphere, and finally dissemination of the project outcomes. The project involves three institutions: Università degli Studi di Catania, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia e Università degli Studi di Perugia. To achieve the project objectives, we developed and installed in 2017 a permanent seismo-acoustic station on the top of Mount Rittmann (Contrafatto et al., 2018, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5023481). This station continuously acquires three-component broadband seismic data, as well as infrasonic signals.

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    Seismological observations can be useful in the monitoring of ice stream dynamics and evolution. A temporary seismic array was deployed around the David Glacier, Victoria Land, during the austral summers 2003-04. Target of the experiment is the collection of seismometric data in order (i) to contribute to filling the gap in global seismic instrumentation, (ii) to monitor the Antarctic seismicity despite its weakness, (iii) to study the lithospheric and deep structure of the continent, (iv) to study interconnections between geodynamics and icecap and glacial evolution.

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    Seismological observations can be useful in the monitoring of ice stream dynamics and evolution. A temporary seismic array was deployed around the David Glacier, Victoria Land, during the austral summers 2015-16. Target of the experiment is the collection of seismometric data in order (i) to contribute to filling the gap in global seismic instrumentation, (ii) to monitor the Antarctic seismicity despite its weakness, (iii) to study the lithospheric and deep structure of the continent, (iv) to study interconnections between geodynamics and icecap and glacial evolution.

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    Seismological observations can be useful in the monitoring of ice stream dynamics and evolution. A temporary seismic array was deployed around the David Glacier, Victoria Land, during the austral summers 2005-06. Target of the experiment is the collection of seismometric data in order (i) to contribute to filling the gap in global seismic instrumentation, (ii) to monitor the Antarctic seismicity despite its weakness, (iii) to study the lithospheric and deep structure of the continent, (iv) to study interconnections between geodynamics and icecap and glacial evolution.

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    Victoria Land (Antarctica) shows a great abundance of seismic signals related to many different types of natural sources such as volcanoes, cryosphere dynamics and ocean-solid Earth interactions. Concerning the former, Melbourne and Rittmann are active volcanoes located in Victoria Land, relatively close to the Italian research station Mario Zucchelli. The main aim of the ICE-VOLC project (www.icevolc-project.com) is the assessment of the state of Melbourne and Rittmann, and the investigation of their dynamics by acquisition, analysis and integration of multiparametric geophysical, geochemical and thermal data. Complementary objectives of ICE-VOLC include investigation of the relationship between seismo-acoustic activity recorded in Antarctica and cryosphere-ocean-atmosphere dynamics, evaluation of the impact of volcanic gas in atmosphere, and finally dissemination of the project outcomes. The project involves three institutions: Università degli Studi di Catania, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia e Università degli Studi di Perugia. To achieve the project objectives, we collected seismic data by temporary broadband 3C stations in different sites of Victoria Land (located on Mt. Melbourne, Mt. Rittmann and Tethys Bay) during various Italian expeditions in Antarctica.